Growing roses in regions with cold and long winters is rarely successful due to the low winter hardiness of the plants. This problem is relevant for flower growers in many countries, but Canadian breeders managed to solve it in the last century by breeding special frost-resistant varieties. Canadian roses perfectly endure winter without shelter, are completely unpretentious in care and can grow even in the most severe climates, delighting with their lush and long flowering.
Canadian roses are propagated by cuttings, which are cut from young, but fully formed shoots in mid-summer. It is desirable that the workpieces reach a length of 25-30 cm - such cuttings root faster, since, immersed deep in the ground, they absorb nutrients better. To make it easier to deepen the stalk, its lower cut should be made at an angle. Roses of Canadian varieties are extremely tenacious, so the cuttings can be safely planted immediately to a permanent place, without worrying about the temperature and humidity, as when growing cuttings of ordinary garden roses.
For successful rooting, cuttings must be prepared and properly planted.
All leaves, with the exception of the top two, should be removed, and the cuttings themselves should be immersed for several hours in a solution that stimulates root growth. This measure is not necessary, but it speeds up the rooting process of the seedlings.
Before planting the cuttings, the soil is dug up and fertilized with organic matter (compost, peat). Then the cuttings are dug into the ground at a slight slope.
The distance between the seedlings depends on the variety of roses. Tall and voluminous shrubs, growing up to 1.5-2 m, are recommended to be planted no closer than 1 m from each other. Roses of medium height (1-1.5 m) are planted at a distance of 50-60 cm, and low roses (up to 1 m) at a distance of 35-40 cm. After digging in, the cuttings should be watered abundantly and covered with cut plastic bottles or jars. To prevent the seedlings from overheating, they should be shaded, or use dark bottles. Although the cuttings will take root in the fall, the shelter can only be removed next spring.
From the video you will find out what these flowers are.
Canadian roses can grow in all conditions and with minimal maintenance. They perfectly tolerate drought and summer heat, moreover, sunny areas are preferable for them than shade. However, they grow quite successfully in the shade. Roses are undemanding to the composition of the soil, but they gratefully respond to periodic feeding with the lush growth of shoots and lush flowering. For top dressing, it is better to use liquid fertilizers (mineral mixtures, mullein, ash solution), which are introduced into small depressions around the bush. In severe drought, plants need to be watered.
Pruning for Canadian roses is not required, but for ampelous varieties it is desirable, since it allows not only to rejuvenate the bush, but also to give it a well-groomed look.
Sanitary pruning is carried out in the spring, before bud break, and consists in the complete removal of diseased and damaged lashes, as well as shortening some of the tops. Then, throughout the summer, it is necessary to remove the faded buds. In autumn, pruning can be omitted, since roses normally tolerate low temperatures and do not need shelter.
Advantages of a flower
The main advantage of Canadian-selected roses is undoubtedly their unique winter hardiness. Plants are able to withstand frosts of -30-45 ° C, while tea hybrids freeze at temperatures of -10 ° C. The level of winter hardiness of these roses may vary depending on the variety, but even if for some reason (a sharp temperature drop) the stems are frozen, then with the arrival of heat they will quickly recover. This ability to recover is due to the growth of plants on their own roots - that is, new shoots grow from root buds.
It is also important to note the high immunity of plants to various diseases of fungal and infectious origin. Also, roses of this selection almost never suffer from parasites and harmful insects, which eliminates the need for seasonal and preventive treatments. They may well do without the activities required for tea varieties: watering, forming pruning, special dressings, and this will not affect their flowering in any way.
One cannot fail to note the high decorative properties of roses. The bushes of these plants are distinguished by lush and bright greenery, small thorns and multiple bright inflorescences. The duration of the flowering of roses (from the end of June to the very frost), as well as the variety of color shades that make it possible to bring bright colors into the landscape space, are also impressive.
Varieties of varieties
Canadian roses are rather difficult to classify, since they were bred with the participation of many species and hybrid forms. Since the main goal of this selection was to obtain the most hardy and winter-hardy roses, the hybrids of Cordes and Rugosa were chosen as mother varieties, which were then crossed with local species common in Canada. Today you can find on sale a huge number of varieties of "Canadians" of various foreign origin, for example, American. But only two series obtained as a result of multi-year government programs belong to exclusively Canadian roses: Explorer and Parkland.
Explorer series roses (discoverer, explorer) are very resistant to low temperatures and diseases, bloom long and luxuriantly. This series includes more than two dozen varieties with completely different characteristics: ampelous, weaving, strong-smelling varieties. The Parkland series (park) was created a little later, and includes a dozen erect varieties with graceful double flowers of various colors. The series was created in the Canadian town of Morden, and therefore almost all Parkland varieties start with the word "Morden". These roses are not very hardy, but they recover extremely quickly after freezing.
Of course, it is not possible to describe all the varieties of Canadian selection, so we will choose the most popular and most often planted in summer cottages:
- Henry Hudson (Explorer Series). Breeding in 1976. Low (90-100 cm), compact shrub rose with medium size (5-7 cm) white or slightly pinkish flowers. It blooms in waves throughout the summer, tolerates shade well, is an excellent option for decorating small flower beds, the front part of the territory.
- J.P.Connell (Explorer). The variety was bred in 1987. The bush is vigorous (up to 1.5 m), erect, with luxurious bright green large leaves, and no less spectacular double flowers of light yellow color. The rose grows slowly, for the first couple of years it blooms once, but as the bush grows, the flowering becomes repeated. This variety is most often used for decoration of parks, alleys, flower beds.
- Morden Blush (Parkland). The most popular and abundantly blooming rose of this series, bred in 1988. The bush is compact (up to 1 m in height and width), flowers are medium-sized (5-6 cm), terry, collected in inflorescences of several pieces. The color of the petals is pale pink or cream, in the center of the flower is rich pink, the aroma is light. Canadian roses of this variety keep their shape for a long time, are resistant to heat, cold and disease.
- Morden Amorette (Parkland). Breeding in 1977. The shortest variety of this series - in warm climates, the height of the bushes can reach 90 cm, but in cold climates it does not exceed 30-40 cm.The bush is compact, the flowers are large (6-7 cm), strong smelling, saturated dark pink or purple color with insignificant light spotting. Grows well in dry and hot climates.
- Charles Albanel (Explorer). The most common variety in summer cottages. The bush is compact, undersized (up to 75 cm), fuchsia-colored flowers, strong smelling. The shoots are flexible, capable of creating a dense shelter, which allows the rose to be used as a ground cover plant.
Among the Explorer series, there are interesting varieties with ampelous shoots up to 3 m high (Martin Frobisher, William Baffin), as well as the early-flowering Therese Bugnet rose, whose flowers bloom in May. Whichever roses you choose, you can be sure that in any climate there will be no difficulties with their cultivation, except for one, the choice of the variety itself, since the variety of Canadian roses will not leave anyone indifferent.
From the video you will learn how to properly care for roses.
Parkland rose series
Park roses, as a rule, are endowed with a small "growth". They are not very flexible. Among these varieties, there are many that have straight shoots and fairly large flowers. It is believed that it is the Parkland series that looks most impressive in large parks.
Morden Cardinet and Sunrise
The bushes of the plant grow only 0.5 meters. Scarlet red flowers are collected in inflorescences, bloom throughout the warm season. This rose can be grown at home on a windowsill.
Sunrise is a yellow and park-type rose. The bush grows up to 0.8 meters. The unusual flower looks good in flower beds, rockeries and along paths in the park. The variety is quite resistant to fungal diseases.
Rapid flowering and unprecedented frost resistance of Morden Ruby neutralize the inconvenience of frequent pruning of the variety. If you take good care of the plant, then it will bloom even in the shade, as well as in places blown by a moderate wind. Inhomogeneous pink flowers with raspberry blotches in diameter reach 6 cm. The only thing Ruby is afraid of is black spot (rose disease).
The park plant is capable of reaching 1.8 meters in height. Double and red flowers in a circle are up to 7 cm. In one inflorescence there are from 1 to 4 flowers. The rose begins to bloom in early summer, flowering ends with the onset of the first frost.
Charming "Canadians" wish to meet you...
With the onset of winter, the roses in our gardens require shelter, but not "Canadians", since they are derived from roses growing even in Alaska! Among the "Canadians" there are varieties for almost every taste. Meet these foreign women and check out their long list of merits!
Advantages of Canadian roses
High frost resistance: withstand temperatures from - 30 ° С to - 45 ° С.
The ability to quickly recover: with changes in winter temperatures, they freeze to the level of snow, but by summer they quickly grow and bloom.
Abundant and prolonged flowering from early June until frost.
High decorativeness: beautiful balanced bush shape not very thorny stems bright green foliage double and semi-double flowers of various colors.
Disease resistance: do not get sick with powdery mildew and black spot.
Shade tolerance: can bloom in partial shade and even in the shade.
Easy maintenance: no shelter required for the winter.
Convenient reproduction: even an inexperienced gardener can easily propagate "Canadians" by cuttings.
Canadian roses began to be cultivated in the last century by the state order, and the dream of erecting a gazebo or a fence with plants that do not need to be removed and covered for the winter has become a reality in Canada. Over time, roses of Canadian selection appeared on our market. They are presented in two series of varieties: Parkland and Explorer. The color of Parkland roses is varied, their flower shape is exquisite, but the roses of this series are not fragrant and there are no climbing species among them. Explorer series roses are climbing, they grow up to 3 m and smell great. By the way, "explorer" means "explorer", so the varieties of roses in this series are named after the discoverers and explorers of Canada (for example, John Davis roses).
Blooming hedge of roses
I will tell you how to create a flowering hedge out of Canadian roses without too many problems. But first, a few words about the hedges themselves. They are conventionally divided by height: high (2-3 m), medium (1-2 m) and low (0.5-1 m). Medium and low hedges in one row are arranged inside the site to divide it into zones. High - in two or three rows, as a fence around the perimeter of the garden. There are also molded (trimmed) and unshaped (not trimmed) hedges. It is for unshaped, freely growing fences that form smooth linear contours that Canadian roses are used.
Varieties of Canadian hedge roses.
Suitable varieties of Rugosa roses of Canadian selection, which are distinguished by a beautiful bush shape. For example, a bush of the Henry Hudson variety is abundantly covered with white-pink buds with a slight odor. Flowering does not stop until frost. If you cut off wilted inflorescences, the flowering will be constant, which will give the hedge a decorative effect during the season. In addition, foliage is preserved on the lower part of the bush, in contrast to bushes of hybrid tea rose, floribunda and grandiflora.
For a tall hedge, choose the new Felix Leclerc Canadian climbing rose. Their shoots reach a height of almost 3 m and can withstand temperatures down to -30 ° C.
The star of the winter-hardy Canadian varieties of the Eexplorer series is John Davis (almost without thorns, with semi-double flowers reminiscent of old roses). As the bud opens, the outer petals drop down to reveal a deep pink, tulip-shaped middle. Gradually, this "tulip" also opens - and the flower takes on a flat shape with a less bright color. John Davis blooms continuously until frost without pruning. This variety is resistant to black spot and powdery mildew, and is rarely affected by aphids.
To create a medium-sized hedge, you can plant hybrids of Canadian species of roses. Their flowers resemble those of hybrid tea roses and the floribunda group. Prairie Joy looks very elegant. This is my favorite rose. Its bush, reaching a height of 1.5 m, from late spring to autumn, is covered with flowers of the classic form of pink shades. The spreading bush of the Morden Centennial variety reaches 1.2 m. It blooms all summer with stunningly beautiful pink buds of a classic hybrid tea form, collected in small inflorescences. Marie-Victorin is a one and a half meter rose with beautiful glossy foliage and flowers of a classic shape in a pink shade with a yellow center.
Morden Sunrise forms a beautiful low hedge up to 0.8 m high, blooming all summer. Its buds, a yellow shade that is rare for Canadian roses, literally glow against the backdrop of glossy dark green foliage.
If you want more flowers than leaves on a bush, get the Champlain variety with bright red buds, collected in inflorescences of 20-30 pieces. This rose blooms constantly, until the frost.
For creating low borders, Morden Amorette (up to 0.5 m high), reminiscent of a floribunda, and Morden Cardinette (up to 0.5 m high), decorated with classic scarlet buds gathered in inflorescences, are ideal for creating low borders.
Growing a young hedge from cuttings.
Landing. Agrotechnics of the "Canadian" is the same as that of all other roses. They prefer light and fertile soil, a sunny location (although they bloom in the shade), regular watering, and mulched soil. It is more economical to grow hedges from cuttings, which are usually cut after the first wave of flowering (in the second half of July) from 3-5 well-formed mother bushes.
Choose strong annual (faded!) Branches. From each, cut 2 cuttings about 20-23 cm (always on a long stem - its green bark will feed the cutting as long as there are no roots). Leave two leaves on the handle, cutting them in half.
Plant the cuttings immediately in a permanent place to keep the first, main roots intact, which break off during transplanting and thereby weaken the young plants. This will give you healthy and large rose bushes.
About a month before planting, weed the soil and mix equal parts with wet peat or compost. To prevent the garden from looking empty, plant annuals along the edge. Submerge the cuttings to the first leaf and tilt slightly towards the north.The distance between cuttings in a hedge depends on the height of the future plants:
- for tall roses (over 1.5 m): distance in a row from 50 to 100 cm, between rows - 50-70 cm
- for medium roses (1-1.5 m): distance in a row and between rows - from 40 to 60 cm
- for low roses (less than 1 m): distance in a row and between rows - from 30 to 40 cm.
Remember the rule! The distance between rose bushes in a hedge is equal to 1/2 the height of the bush.
After planting, water the cuttings and cover them with halves of blue plastic bottles. Shade the seedlings with a thin layer of hay to get some sun on the plants. By September, the cuttings will begin to actively root, by winter they will gain strength - and in the spring they will release strong shoots.
Care. The cuttings should overwinter under bottle caps, and in the spring, when the snow melts, the shelter should be removed. Typically, all cuttings survive the winter. Mulch the plantings with wet peat or chopped bark in a layer of 5-8 cm.
Further caring for roses is simple: regularly water with warm, settled water and weed out the weeds in and around the bushes so that the ground under the plantings warms up well.
For the winter, sprinkle roses with a 30-40 cm layer of soil. This will protect the center of the shrub from frost and create an extra layer of ground for root growth.
Attention! The vulnerable root system of roses is located horizontally, therefore, when caring for plants, do not stomp closer than 50 cm away from them!
Top dressing. It is recommended to feed the roses with liquid fertilizers once a month, pouring them into shallow holes, so as not to injure the root system (for the same reason, you cannot put top dressing into the soil under the roses). Apply fertilizer in several steps so that they reach the deep roots. I feed the roses with humus, mixed from 1 shovel of compost to 1 bucket of water. Instead, you can make an ash mash with 2-3 glasses of ash and 1 bucket of water. Do not overdo it with the amount of ash, especially at the end of summer, otherwise the roses will start to release too tall annual shoots that will freeze over in winter. Bushes need a full set of minerals and trace elements only once a season (after that they bloom magnificently, but are attacked by aphids).
Pruning. If you do not cut the climbing Canadian roses in the hedge, you can get a sprawling bush with tall shoots. In the spring (before bud break) "Canadians" need only sanitary pruning. Remove weak indoor, ugly and frosty shoots. Rejuvenate the plants by cutting out old branches (over 3 years old) to the base of the bush and dry hemp left over from previous pruning. The roses will start blooming 2-3 weeks after that. To achieve continuous flowering, continually prune wilted buds.
Canadian roses: variety description
J.P. Connell (J.P. Connell)
The main task of rose growers from the northern regions is the correct choice of rose varieties. They must be resistant to adverse weather conditions. Endure long, harsh winters.
Canada has approached this problem with particular care. As a result of the painstaking work of breeders, it was possible to bring out frost-resistant varieties of roses that are suitable for growing even in the harsh conditions of Siberia and the northern, polar regions. These flowers are called Canadian roses. They have special characteristics and are the most hardy.
In the 50s of the last century, the program for the development of frost-resistant varieties of roses received financial support from the government of Canada.
It should be noted that almost all varieties of Canadian roses can withstand 35-40 C below zero. Moreover, it is not at all necessary to cover them. Even if the upper shoots freeze, the root system is able to quickly restore its functionality and new shoots will sprout from it.
The originality of our products is the high endurance of the seedlings, resistance to adverse environmental factors, including the winter period, since everything is grown in the harsh conditions of the Kostroma region without greenhouses and shelters. We send only biennial, matured and inherited all the qualities of the mother plant.
The collection is constantly replenished, the assortment is restored and expanded every year with the addition of new crops and varieties.
Description of Canadian roses: instructions for proper care
The Canadian rose does not differ greatly from other varieties of roses. In a place with a sufficient amount of sunlight, it is necessary to make a planting hole in advance to a depth of seventy centimeters and then fill it with light fertile soil. Then the seedlings of Canadian roses are watered in a timely manner, and the soil is mulched.
The Canadian rose does not grow well in cold climates without protection for the winter season from the cold, it is also necessary to remove excess shoots. Otherwise, the plant will die or slow down its growth.
In the spring season, before the buds swell, they arrange sanitary pruning. It is necessary to remove frozen and thin shoots growing inward, as well as dried parts that were not touched during the last pruning. Adult shoots are pruned once every couple of years to a stump to rejuvenate the plant.
To achieve a more voluminous bush of Canadian roses, in the spring we advise you to purchase fertilizing with nitrogen, in July to apply fertilizers to the soil, but phosphorus and potash.
It is recommended to use peat and compost to strengthen the frost resistance. Cover the plant with a layer of snow during the winter season. You can bend the shoots to the soil.
Canadian roses: video about growing varieties