Plant families

Plant families


Amaryllidaceae (lat.Amaryllidaceae) - monocotyledonous plants, formerly classified as Liliales, but now, according to the APG classification, included in the order of Asparagales. They number about seventy genera and over a thousand species. Distributed on all continents except Antarctica, but most of them grow in the tropics and subtropics at the foot of the mountains and at altitudes up to 4000m, and only some species of amaryllis prefer a temperate climate. Most of the amaryllis are ornamental plants, some have been introduced into cultivation for a very long time.


Araliaceae (Araliaceae) - the family is tropical and subtropical. It includes about 850 species that belong to more than 70 genera. The most numerous genus in terms of the number of species is Schefflera. Most of the Araliaceae are found in East and Southeast Asia, Australia, the Pacific Islands and tropical America. For the most part, aralia are trees or shrubs (epiphytes, semi-epiphytes and vines), but there are also semi-shrubs and perennial grasses. Florists are attracted to Aralia by very beautiful leaves and a variety of forms.


Family Liliaceae (Liliaceae) includes about 200 genera and 4000 species of monocotyledonous perennials growing in different climatic zones of the Earth. Most of them are found in the subtropical regions of Asia, North America, Europe and Africa, where droughts occur periodically, as well as in the desert and semi-desert areas of these continents. And although herbaceous plants predominate in the family, tree-like representatives and vines are sometimes found in the tropics.

One of the most light-loving perennials. This is a small branched shrub up to half a meter high, on the numerous shoots of which inflorescences are formed.

The main trump card of the shrub is a deep lilac color. Lavender bloom is an incredibly beautiful sight, accompanied by a spicy sweetish aroma.

Beetles - pests of wood

Representatives that damage the bark of trees are also dangerous. Usually they live inside the trunks, branches, preventing them from fully developing. Consider popular representatives.

Bark beetles

Bark beetles (Scolytinae) are parasites whose life takes place inside trees. Still, being larvae, they carve tunnels under the bark, making real passages from the branches, which leads to their drying out. In addition, if bark beetles are bred on the trees, there is a high probability that other parasites will attack it. In order to prevent the development of these parasites, it is recommended to promptly remove damaged and dry branches, thin out the plantings. You can use the baits that are laid out on the territory. If preventive measures do not help, then more serious methods of struggle will need to be connected. These include the treatment with the preparations Confidor Extra, Koragen, Aktara, Topaz, Clipper, Kartotsid.


Another widespread beetle pest of fruit crops is the goldfish (Buprestidae). Most of the beetles develop on shrub and tree crops. Goldilocks are distinguished by a shiny surface of the elytra, which has various shades.

It is a mistake to think that goldsmiths feed exclusively on bark. They settle on trees to lay larvae in the bark, and insects can feed on buds, pollen and leaf plates. Depending on the tree on which the parasite settles, even the names of goldsmiths arose - pear, currant, bicolor, grape, smoky.

To fight parasites use "Confidor Extra", "Koragen", also spraying with phosphamide or karbofos (0.2% solution). It is recommended to process not only leaves, but also trunks, soil under plantings.


Flaps occupy a special place among the many-sided army of pests of indoor and greenhouse plants.

Adult individuals, resembling small butterflies, harm, but larvae are more dangerous. They kill room plants, inflict a huge damage on the greenhouse industry. How can you find a dangerous pest, rid your green friends of him?

Features of the family Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae)

Whiteflies attack most indoor, greenhouse and greenhouse crops and suck out plant sap. They are settled on the leaves and shoots of begonias, fuchsias, balzamines, pelargoniums, myrtha, poinsettia, gerberas, and plants of the aanth family. In Europe, there are about two dozen species of whitefly, including strawberry, cabbage, and tobacco. The greenhouse, or opange, whitefly damages vegetable and flower plants. A dangerous pest is citrus white worm.

The Aleyrodidae family are small semi-hard-winged insects, their body length is about 1–2 mm. There are two pairs of wings, they are folded like a moth like a "house", as if sprinkled with a white coating.

Females are fertile, laying eggs on the underside of the leaf. The clutches in the form of a ring of 20 eggs are attached to the leaf grooves with thin stalks. Small greenish stray larvae emerging from the eggs adhere to the leaves. They suck out the sap of the plant, excreting the sugary mucus. The larvae undergo three molts. In the fourth phase, when the cover hardens, they become practically unavailable for insecticidal preparations.

Whitefly damage

What changes occur in a plant organism contaminated with whiteflies? The leaves turn yellow and fall off, the forms of the individual organs of flower cultures change, and the decoration is lost.

Under the influence of the activity of parasites, plants weaken, more susceptible to fungal and bacterial diseases during this period. It also carries viral infections.

Ways of dealing with whitebird

Much attention in indoor floriculture, greenhouses and greenhouses is given to folk, non-chemical methods of wrestling. The given tips and recipes will help to get rid of pests using means and methods that are harmless to humans.

You can start with agro-technical techniques: partially replace the soil in containers with indoor plants, promptly remove dead leaves. In greenhouses - weed control, freezing.

Mechanical methods of fighting. Adult flying insects are collected with a vacuum cleaner, velcro is hung in the room and in the warm-up. Plants with small leaves are periodically washed. Rub large leaves with a damp tampon to remove white-winged larvae and eggs.

Application of insecticidal plants:

Collect herbs in dry weather and dry raw materials immediately after harvest. When it dries quickly, more insecticidal substances are preserved in the raw material.
When making solutions for spraying, vegetable raw materials are crushed, boiled, insisted, and then strained.
In the infusion or decoction, shortly before spraying, add household soap dissolved in water to better cover the organs of plants.
The action of the solutions is monitored, after processing, the condition and development of the insects is monitored.
Repeated processings are carried out after 5–8 days.
Working with insecticidal solutions requires observance of precautions.
Some insecticidal herbs used against whitefly:

Wormwood. The whitefly, planted around and in greenhouses, is scared off by the bitter woodworm, brooms hanging in the greenhouses. Plants are sprayed with an infusion of wormwood during flowering. Finely chopped raw grass (half a bucket) is poured with water. Infused for 24 hours. The solution is boiled for 30 minutes and added with water (1: 1).

Pharmacy machine. Take 1 kg of dried herb, fill it with water, leave for 12 hours. Add two more volumes of water before spraying.

Yarrow. Approximately 80 g of the harvested herb is scalded with boiled water, after which water is added to a volume of 1 liter. It is brewed for 24 hours.

Garlic. With a small number of insects, sprinkling with garlic infusion helps. For its preparation, pour crushed teeth with a mass of 170 g with a liter of water. It is infused for 5 days in a tightly sealed container. Take 6 g of this concentrated solution and dilute in 1 liter of water. Leaves and soil in the pots are moistened abundantly.

The use of insecticidal agrochemicals against whitefly

Of the chemical means of fighting whitefly in indoor conditions, such an insecticide as Aĸtara is effective. Plants are sprayed with a solution (4 g per 5 l of water). For soil cultivation, a solution is prepared weaker (1 g per 10 l of water). Potted plants need 2-3 times processing at intervals of about a week.

Indoor flower and decorative crops can be treated against the greenhouse whitefly with Atelli and Mospilan. Of other insecticidal preparations, they are used: Inta-vir (you cannot treat flowering specimens with it), Funfanon. Fitoverm is effective only with repeated treatments and in combination with other insecticides. The microbiological preparation Verticillin is used, which causes the death of insects.

The most popular are the integrated methods of protection from the white lamb. The combination of agrotechnical measures, folk, chemical and biological agents eliminates harmful insects, reducing the use of chemical preparations. Reducing the use of chemicals as much as possible is necessary for the safety of soil, leaves, flowers, fruits of plants

Plant families - garden and vegetable garden

It is impossible to imagine our table without vegetables and potatoes. They are the most important component of the diet of both the academician and the carpenter. Vegetables - a pantry of carbohydrates, protein, organic acids, vitamins, mineral salts, enzymes, and other essential nutrients. Of particular value are vitamins, which are either almost absent or present in small doses in other products. Do not rely solely on grocery stores and markets, start your own vegetable garden. Especially if you want to have fresh vegetables straight from the garden. The secrets of growing vegetables are not that difficult. Diligence, perseverance, curiosity, ingenuity will help you overcome all difficulties and become a real vegetable grower.

So, advice from specialists and experienced gardeners.

To extend the season for the consumption of fresh vegetables, early, medium and late varieties are planted. The earliest harvests in the open field can be obtained from the cultivation of perennial crops (sorrel, rhubarb, perennial types of onions), as well as from winter sowing of carrots, beets, parsley, radishes and planting onions. Early vegetables of annual crops (lettuce, cucumbers, radishes) and onions can be grown in small greenhouses in the garden.

They accelerate the development of shelters made of film or glass without artificial heating in early spring. You can grow radishes under them. They can cover sorrel, rhubarb, onions, winter crops of beets and carrots.

Vegetable plants according to biological, botanical and economic characteristics, they are classified into homogeneous groups.

Cabbage plants. There are several varieties of cabbage: white cabbage, cauliflower, red cabbage, Savoy cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and leafy cabbage. Almost all types of cabbage are biennial plants. Only in the second year, the planted stalks with apical buds give seeds. Plants of this group are cold-resistant, require increased moisture supply, although they do not tolerate excessive moisture (especially long-term), they are demanding on soil fertility. Cauliflower, Chinese cabbage and broccoli under certain conditions form seeds in the first year of life and are annual.

Mid-season cabbage varieties are suitable for pickling, late varieties for pickling and long-term storage. Red cabbage is unsuitable for cooking, it is used fresh for salads. Cauliflower is good for boiling, roasting, and canning.

Roots. This group includes: carrots, parsnips, parsley, celery (umbelliferae family) beetroot (from the haze family) radish, turnips, turnips, rutabagas, radishes (cruciferous family) chicory (from the aster family). All root crops form seeds in the second year of life (when planted with an intact apical bud), with the exception of radishes and summer radishes, which give seeds in the first year. Without exception, all plants of this group are cold-resistant, require high soil fertility, moisture supply (especially in the period after sowing the seeds).

Bulbous plants. In this group, onions, leeks, perennial varieties of onions (multi-tiered shallots, batun onions) coexist. All these plants are cold-resistant. Onions and garlic contain many nutrients and vitamins. Onions are grown by seeds (nigella), sevkom (small bulbs 1.5-2.5 cm, usually obtained from nigella) and a sample (3-4 cm or more).

Fruit vegetables. Cucumbers, zucchini, squash, pumpkin, watermelons, melons (pumpkin family) tomatoes, peppers, eggplants (nightshade family). All these plants are very thermophilic and require highly fertile soils. Almost every year, in our conditions, to obtain these vegetables, it is necessary to use protective agents against frost and low temperatures.

Peas, beans and beans (legume family) also belong to the group of fruit vegetables. Unlike their neighbors, they can withstand low temperatures. Beans are somewhat more thermophilic than peas and beans.

Green vegetables. These are the familiar salad, dill, parsley, celery, watercress, coriander (do not be confused that we also included some of them in the group of root vegetables - remember the sayings about tops and roots), as well as other cultures that we almost not familiar and not cultivated in the middle lane. All of these crops are cold-resistant annuals, they are mainly sown with seeds.

Perennial vegetables. It is somehow unusual to call sorrel, rhubarb, asparagus, horseradish vegetables - but it is so. All these plants are frost-resistant, in one place they can grow from two to five years. Propagated by seeds and vegetatively.

Potatoes. Among vegetables it takes a special place, it is bred to obtain tubers. Potatoes belong to the nightshade family. Potato bushes are easily damaged by frost. Propagated mainly by tubers, but you can also propagate it by eyes, sprouts, dividing a bush and even seeds (this laborious work does not give the same effect as propagation by tubers).

Part garden plot that you allocate for vegetable crops should not be shaded. If possible, you should choose a free, well-lit area with the most fertile soil (if the soil is not very fertile, you need to patiently start creating it for many years). A common mistake of novice vegetable growers is the desire for a combined arrangement of crops, when vegetables and strawberries are placed among young apple and pear trees. As long as the trees are young, everything seems to be going well: the crowns do not shade the beds too much, there is enough light and food for vegetables. But trees quickly gain strength, grow, and then the intermediate crops fall into the shade, their yield decreases from year to year. Indeed, most vegetable crops and potatoes do not tolerate strong shading and the presence of roots of woody plants in the soil. Therefore, one of the main rules for complex gardening and horticulture - provide a place for each crop and take into account the need to subsequently carry out a competent change (alternation) of vegetables and berries. After all, a certain culture should be returned to its original place not earlier than after three years, and even better - after four or five years. To do this, you need to draw up a clear plan for the placement and rotation of crops.

The timing of the return of crops to their original place is roughly the following: cabbage - 3 - 4 years, carrots - 3, peas - 4 - 5, celery - 3, tomatoes - 3 - 4, cucumbers - 3, lettuce - 1-2, onions - 4 - 5 years.

The yield decreases especially sharply and the quality deteriorates with permanent cultivation of cabbage, beets, peas, tomatoes, cucumbers, and potatoes.

When plants are re-grown on the same soil, a decrease in yield occurs as a result of the release of physiologically active substances into the soil, which subsequently inhibit the same culture.

The most appropriate width of the beds is 1.2 m. Between the beds, paths 0.3 m wide are left.The creation of narrower beds is a waste of the land of the garden plot, wider ones - it makes it difficult to cultivate the soil, care for plants and harvest.