Burnet (Sanguisorba) is a member of the herbaceous plant forms of the Rosaceae family. The flower stands out against the background of traditional natural greenery with bright dark green shoots with openwork foliage and attractive pinkish inflorescences in the form of fur seals or spikelets. The origin of the name refers to one of the main properties of the plant, namely the ability to restrain bleeding.
In official sources, the burnet is called "sangvisorba". It grows in temperate climatic latitudes in Eurasia and North American countries. Burnet thickets rapidly fill the space around and concentrate on forest edges or in the coastal zone. Sometimes plantings of perennials are found at the foot of the Caucasian mountains.
Burnet: plant description
Burnet is prized for its decorative effect. The plant gets its nutrients from a brownish, cracked rhizome that goes 12 cm deep and is placed horizontally or diagonally underground. The powerful root is surrounded by fibrous ligneous layers.
Shoots branch weakly and reach a height of up to 1.5 m. On the surface of the shoots, unpaired petiole leaves grow. Most of the foliage gathers at the bottom of the plant and forms a lush rosette. All other leaves are arranged in a sequential order. They look small and have a rich green hue. The plates are marked with a relief pattern of a mesh of veins. The edges of the leaflets are crenate.
Flowering lasts several months and falls in the summer months, sometimes affecting the beginning of September. Flowers of a reddish or pinkish tone are closely pressed together and are located on the top of the peduncle, acting in the form of a capitate, often spike-shaped inflorescence. The absence of petals is compensated by bracts and stamens. In the center of the spikelet there is a pistil, shaped like a mace and surrounded by an ovary below.
When the pollination process is over, the fruits ripen. We are talking about small, single-seeded pear-shaped nuts, smooth to the touch. The color of the fruit is light brown.
Sangvisorba is successfully cultivated with seed and root cuttings. Burnet planting is allowed to be carried out directly into the ground, bypassing the seedling stage of cultivation. Winter sowing is encouraged. The site must have properties of fertility and air permeability. The holes are dug shallow. From above, the seeds are sprinkled with a thin layer of peat.
With the arrival of spring, the first shoots are expected to appear. Weeds, like spring frosts, are harmless to seedlings. In the fall, already matured young burnet plants are transplanted together with an earthen clod to a new place. It is recommended to keep the distance between individual bushes at least 50 cm. Flowering brushes are formed together with peduncles only in biennial plants.
Burnet shrubs that have been growing in the garden for a long time are distinguished by a strong branched rhizome. Delenki are obtained from it, which can be used as planting material. Burnet root is removed from the soil very carefully. Then, with a sharp knife, they are divided into parts, leaving a growth point at each. The cut borders are rubbed with crushed ash so that infection does not start.
Burnet care is simple, cultivated species survive even under adverse conditions. The plant is able to make healthy competition for any weeds and flowers that are unpretentious in care. For growing burnet, it is better to select open corners, where nutritious, drained and moist soil with an admixture of humus prevails, devoid of swampiness and alkalinity.
The main care for burnet is regular watering. In the natural environment, the plant chooses wet coastal regions for habitation. Drought damages crops, so you will have to frequently irrigate the soil. In addition, the flower suffers from a lack of feeding. It is better to use mineral formulations that are applied after the thaw begins. Re-feeding is done several times during the season. Diluted mineral granules and organic additives are poured under the roots.
The substrate needs loosening, getting rid of weeds, otherwise a crust will form on the surface of the site. The tallest species of Burnet tend to bend under the weight of the fluffy peduncles, so there is a possibility of damage to the stems in case of strong gusts of wind. The flower must be tied up and try to be placed near other shrubs. Burnet grows easily through self-seeding. It is possible to stop the uncontrolled spread of seeds by trimming wilting spikelets. Most of the perennial species are resistant to low temperatures and can withstand wintering even in the northern regions.
Burnet is practically not exposed to diseases or attacks of pests. Traces of a mosaic pattern or spotting on the blades indicate infection. Sick specimens will have to be removed, and the plant should be sprayed with fungicidal preparations. Insects often find themselves on a flower with a number of growing plants. They are destroyed with chemical insecticides.
Types and varieties of burnet with a photo
Burnet has about two dozen species modifications. As cultural gardeners, gardeners choose certain names for breeding.
Burnet medicinal (Sanguisorba officinalis)
One of the rarest medicinal plants from the Rosaceae pedigree, classified as an endangered species. The flower is characterized by straight, tall stems. The rosette of leaves, which occupies a position near the roots, is formed from unpaired leaf blades. The lobes have jagged edges and an ovoid shape. The leaves are alternate on the stems. Purple or burgundy spikelets-inflorescences consist of small flowers that sit tightly next to each other. The varieties of the medicinal burnet include: Pink Tanna and Tanna. As for the first variety, it is worth mentioning here the lush pink spikelets, heading down at the peak of flowering. The second variety is distinguished by its compactness and tough scarlet inflorescences.
Blunt Burnet (Sanguisorba obtusa)
Climbs the mountains and comes from Japan. The height of the bushes is no more than 1 m. Peduncles have beautiful lush peduncles, which at the time of flowering dissolve pink pistils. Branching of the stems is observed near the base. Gray-green leaves in the central part of the stem are feathery. The variety "Alba" is very popular, featuring fluffy snow-white "cats"
Menzies' Burnet (Sanguisorba menziesii)
This perennial is a bush of tall, even stems and a dense basal rosette of gray, pinnate leaf blades. The length of the peduncles can reach up to 1.2 m.During the flowering period, and this happens at the beginning of summer, the bushes are decorated with bright pink brushes, the size of which does not exceed 7 cm.
Alpine Burnet (Sanguisorba alpina)
The plant is of medium length. The stems are highly leafy. The leaves have a pronounced green tint and heart-shaped. Short inflorescences bloom in June, but elongate over time, forming lush, fragrant spikelets.
The tallest spreading bushes are best placed along garden paths or located near the house. Group plantings of burnet look no less attractive. The bushes, decorated with dense bright greenery, look very dignified even after flowering. The flowering period is long. Burnet varieties, in which long peduncles predominate, allow you to arrange an area behind the flower garden. As for the stunted types of burnet, they are planted on alpine hills.
Cereals, lilies, mountaineers, basilisk or meadowsweet can become neighbors with burnet. Dense thickets of a flower look especially beautiful at the beginning of autumn, since it is during this time period that the color of the foliage changes to orange shades. The decorativeness of the inflorescences is also preserved in the cut form, which explains the use of sanguisorbus in bouquet compositions.
In addition to external data, the burnet has found a cooking application, where fragrant green leaves of the flower are added to various cocktails, vegetable salads and fish dishes. Washed rhizomes are peeled and used boiled as a side dish for the main dish. Tea made from perennial leaves and roots is popular in Asian countries.
The plant got such an unusual name due to its ability to stop bleeding and effectively cure vascular diseases. The most valuable are the roots of the burnet, which contain many active substances:
- organic acids;
- ascorbic acid;
- essential oils;
- trace elements.
Medicinal raw materials are harvested at the end of summer after the completion of flowering at the stage of seed ripening. It is recommended to use the leaves and roots of only strong and healthy shrubs that have reached the age of five. After the roots have been removed from the soil, the earth is thoroughly shaken off and the required number of lateral roots is cut off, and the rest is placed back into the ground for further growth and development.
The harvested burnet roots are washed under running cold water and dried under a canopy, removing stem shoots. When the roots are half dry, they are cut into thin strips and dried in the oven. The temperature regime in ovens and ovens is set at 45 ° C, if the temperature is higher than the recommended one, the raw material will quickly turn black and lose useful substances. Dried roots should be stored in cloth or paper bags. Burnet raw material retains its medicinal properties for five years.
Burnet is an excellent hemostatic, astringent, antimicrobial, tonic, wound healing agent. Flower root medicines are suitable for both internal and external use.
Broths made from plant raw materials, burnet, drink 1 tsp. up to 5 times a day. They are even prescribed to infants to strengthen children's immunity, fight diarrhea and reduce intestinal motility. Lotions and compresses remove inflammatory lesions on the skin. Drinking herbal and flower tea made from sangvisorbus improves health in case of hemoptysis, tuberculosis, soothes headaches, relieves swelling of the gums and swelling.
For the preparation of alcoholic tincture, take 3 tbsp. dried roots, pour 1 tbsp. vodka and store the container in a dark place for about 20 days. It is enough to drink a few drops of the tincture a day to stabilize the menstrual cycle and prevent blood clots.
BLOOD BREEDER || Useful properties and application
People who are prone to allergies, pregnant women and children should be careful when handling burnet preparations. The benefits of treatment will be only if the recommendations of doctors are followed and the correct dosage of drugs is used.
Such a frightening name has a seemingly harmless plant. Moreover, the original habit (appearance) - openwork leaves and a peculiar form of inflorescences - makes it simply beautiful. In the people, the burnet is called differently: thighbone, hernia, gardener, button, twig, wild mountain ash, owl grass, black grass, bumps.
Burnet medicinal (Sanguisorba officinalis L) belongs to the family Rosaceae (Rosaceae). It is a perennial herb up to 1 m in height with a thick horizontally arranged ligneous rhizome up to 12 cm in length and long thin roots. The stem is hollow, ribbed, relatively branched. Leaves up to 6 cm long, oblong-ovate.
The flowers are small, on long peduncles, collected in heads up to 3 cm long. The perianth is dark brown-red. Fruits are dry single-seeded nuts up to 3.5 mm in length, brown. The plant blooms in June - August, the fruits ripen in August - September.
Burnet medicinal, flowers
Common burnet is common in Western and Eastern Siberia, the Urals and the Far East. It is found in the European part of Russia, in the Crimea and the Caucasus, in Central Asia and in East Kazakhstan.
Along with the medicinal burnet, the glandular burnet (S. glandulosa Kom.), Which grows in the Far East, is also used.
Burnet has been known as a medicinal plant since the 16th century. For medicinal purposes, she uses rhizomes with roots containing tannins (up to 25%), gallic and ellagic acids, saponins, loss, sterols, gentriacontan, starch (up to 30%), essential oil, ascorbic acid, carotene.
A decoction of rhizomes with roots and a liquid extract of burnet are used as an astringent and hemostatic agent for intestinal diseases (diarrhea, internal bleeding - dysentery, hemorrhoids), hemoptysis, uterine bleeding.
The liquid extract is prepared with 70% alcohol and prescribed 30-50 drops 3-4 times a day. A decoction of rhizomes and roots is prepared in the usual way at the rate of 6 g of crushed raw materials per 200 ml of hot water. Take 1 tablespoon 5-6 times a day after meals.
It is also recommended to have a burnet in the arsenal of remedies for those who keep livestock. For calves, for example, a decoction of rhizomes is prepared at the rate of 1:10 or 1:20 for oral administration as an astringent, hemostatic agent.
Young rhizomes can be used for food, including them in vinaigrette, salads. To do this, they are pre-peeled, then soaked for 5-6 hours in water, which is periodically changed. In the Caucasus, burnet leaves are also used for food, they contain ascorbic acid and have a strong cucumber odor. The inflorescences contain dyes. In everyday life, they can be used to dye fabrics in red and gray. Burnet is a good honey plant, and nutritious hay for livestock is also obtained from it. The plant will not spoil any decorative composition.
Burnet propagates by seeds and vegetatively - by segments of rhizomes. Seeds are sown in areas open to the sun in holes or rows to a depth of 0.5-1.0 cm and lightly sprinkled with peat chips after watering. When growing burnet, it should be borne in mind that although it is undemanding to soils, it develops well on loose, rich in humus. It can compete quite successfully with weeds. However, like all plants, it is very responsive to care - up to top dressing with organic and mineral fertilizers. In early spring, after the snow melts, it is recommended to apply complex mineral fertilizers under the plants at the rate of 30-40 g / m2, embedding them at a shallow depth with hoes, since the root system of the burnet is located in the surface layer of the soil. During the growing season, the soil is maintained in a loose, weed-free state.
Roots and rhizomes are harvested during the fruiting period of plants in late August - September. After digging, they are cleaned of the earth, shaken off, cut off the stems and washed, preferably in running water. Then they are laid out on burlap, mat for drying in the sun. After drying, the raw materials are crushed and dried again in the sun, spreading the pieces in a thin layer on paper, cloth and stirring occasionally. When drying in ovens, in ovens, the heating temperature should not exceed 50-60 °. The raw material is considered ready if the roots break during compression.Typically, the yield of dry raw materials from crude is 22-25%. Store it in bags in a dry, well-ventilated area. Shelf life is 5 years.
We recommend reading more
- Licorice is a medicinal plant for many diseasesOriental medicine even 5 thousand years ago considered this plant a panacea for many diseases. Licorice glabra (Glycyrrhiza glabra) belongs to the legume family (Fabaceae). In our country.
- How I Grow Chinese SchisandraGardeners who walk past my site in the garden often stop to admire the beautiful green wall. Shiny brown leafy stems hang in garlands from a 3-meter trellis.
- Reproduction and cultivation of schisandra seedsI propagate lemongrass by seeds. To do this, I fill them with water. I reject those that have come to the surface. Then I drain the water, wrap the seeds in a cotton cloth, put them in a wooden box, and cover them.
- Borago or cucumber herbCucumber herb, in scientific use - borago, has long been grown in vegetable gardens as a spicy aromatic, vegetable and medicinal plant. It rivals in taste and smell.
- Kalanchoe pinnateThe homeland of Kalanchoe pinnate is the exotic regions of tropical Africa, the island of Madagascar, the Cape Verde Islands and the Kamor Islands. In our country, this plant was possible several years ago.
- Mint in cosmetologyMint is one of the most fragrant plants in our flora. For many centuries, she was held in high esteem by the peoples of different countries. The Romans, for example, rubbed them before meeting noble guests.
Add a comment Cancel reply
© 2009-2019 "Miracle Garden". Here are collected articles about gardening and horticulture, to help summer residents and all those who like to grow on the site.
Reprinting of materials only with the written permission of the publisher, setting a link to Miracle vegetable garden required.
User agreement and legal information
For copyright holders
Burnet - a shy fashionista in natural gardens
Holland is home to the most popular postmodern designer of the 21st century, Pete Udolph. It was thanks to him that the direction in the creation of flower beds, which began in Germany and received the name "new wave" there, became a leader in urban landscaping and among advanced gardeners. Herbs, cereals and simple perennial flowers began to enter the garden fashion, which no one would have considered as an object of garden design two decades ago. And with one of these plants, let's call it conditionally "simple", but charming, I would like to acquaint you better. Burnet (Sanguisorba) quickly and rapidly entered natural-style flower gardens and is in demand by landscape designers like never before.
What's so special about a burnet?
Burnet does not differ in large bright flowers and dense foliage, its charm is in lightness, airiness and elegance. If you plant it in the foreground, then with its openwork foliage it will create a translucent screen through which the flower garden will be viewed. Due to the long and thin, almost imperceptible peduncle, the inflorescences seem to float in the air, creating an additional frame for the plantings.
Due to the long and thin, almost imperceptible peduncle, the inflorescences seem to float in the air, creating an additional frame for the plantings.
Burnet meets all the basic requirements of designers for "Dutch" or "new wave" flower beds:
1.beautiful foliage and modest, dull, but original flowers - dense small inflorescences have a varied shape, from small bumps to long spikelets or drooping earrings
2.beautiful flowers - white, pink, red, depending on the species
3.the flowering period is long, up to two months
4.does not lose its attractiveness throughout the year - in autumn the foliage turns yellow and orange, and dried inflorescences on high peduncles do not fall off even in winter and look very beautiful
5.Some species hold their shape well, however, they fall apart, but at the same time they still look good, you just need to choose the right place for them
6. Reproduces well by self-seeding and rhizomes, but not aggressive, you can not control planting.
burnet with perennials
Ideal plant for the "lazy"
This perennial is unpretentious: a lot of sun, moist fertile soil, weeding and loosening - that's all it needs. If the soil is very poor, in early spring and a couple of times during the season, you can carry out standard fertilizing with mineral fertilizers and organic matter. Apply fertilizers carefully - the powerful rhizome is located shallow, it is easy to damage it when mixing the fertilizer with the soil. Weeding and loosening can be replaced by mulching with any organic material such as cut grass. Very winter-hardy, not affected by pests, does not get sick.
Burnet is easily re-pollinated, resulting in very interesting hybrids. If you need to propagate a varietal burnet or a plant of the original species, propagate in divisions, and cut off the inflorescences immediately after the end of flowering.
Reproduction by seeds. The seeds are sown in the fall. The sowing depth is about 1 cm. The seeds are evenly distributed and sprinkled with a layer of peat. Until the next autumn, the seedlings grow, then they are planted in a permanent place at a distance of 0.5 m. In the 2-3rd year, the plant begins to bloom.
Reproduction by rhizome. To obtain divisions, a plant not younger than 5 years of age is carefully dug up, pieces of rhizome with growth points are cut off, the cuts are sprinkled with ash and planted in a new place in May or August.
The genus Sanguisorba is not numerous - only about 20 species. They differ mainly in size, foliage color, as well as in the shape and color of the inflorescences.
The tallest of the common among gardeners are bloodworms (S. officinalis) and canadensis (S. canadensis). Plants grow up to 1.5 m and higher, differ in the color of inflorescences - in the medicinal burnet, they have the form of small cones of a dark red color, in the Canadian - white spikelets.
Blunt Burnet (S. obtusa) and Menzies' Burnet (S.menziessii) are more compact, about 1 m tall. Both plants are loved by designers for the elegance and beauty of large, up to 7 cm, pubescent inflorescences of bright pink color, in the dull one - drooping, similar to alder catkins, in Menzies - erect. Menzies' bloodworm is the only early flowering one, blooms already in May, the rest - in August-September.
Menzies' bloodworm is the only early flowering one, blooms already in May, the rest - in August-September.
The rhizomes and roots of Burnetus officinalis contain tannins (12-20%), presented as hydrolyzed (witch hazel) and condensed (halocatechin), starch (about 30%), saponins, dyes, essential oil (1.8%). The aboveground mass contains flavonoids (glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin, in particular rutoside, as well as cyanidin glycosides), tannins, triterpene glycosides, betulin, ursolic and tormentic acids, chlorogenic acid. Ascorbic acid is found in the leaves.
Burnet collection and drying
The roots and rhizomes are recognized as the most important part for decoctions in the medicinal burnet. They are harvested at the time of fruiting of the plant. During this period, the burnet stands out from the rest of the range of herbs due to its dark red inflorescences.
The plant should be dug out with shovels, and in no case should it be pulled out of the soil by the stems. Shovels should have grooved rounded blades. In order to preserve the thickets, some of the plants should be left for renewal (1 or 2 plants per 10 square meters). You can repeat the blanks at the same place after a ten-year period. After the rhizomes have been dug up, it is necessary to shake them off the ground, after which the stems are cut off and washed in water, always in cold water.
After cutting off the stems and washing the plant, it is laid out for incomplete drying. After the plant is more or less dry, it is necessary to cut off the remaining stems located near the base of the rhizomes. Then the rhizomes are cut into pieces equal to 20 centimeters. Spread the rhizomes in the fresh air so that they wilt a little, and then put them in the sun to dry completely. You can dry raw materials in the attic, in an oven at a temperature of 45 degrees, or in dryers. Never put raw materials on metal trays or racks. Because of this, the burnet can turn black and lose all its medicines. Finally, you can understand that the roots have dried up, then, when, instead of bending, they break. You can store this raw material for about five years. We remind you that the burnet has practically no smell, and the taste is astringent. The most significant burnet crops are in Tatarstan, the Urals and Siberia. It is there that the abundant harvesting of medicinal burnet is carried out.
Burnet grows well in one place for up to 10 years, without expanding or suppressing other plants. It can grow in any conditions, but in order for the plant to show its decorative qualities, it should be planted in open sunny areas, it can be near water bodies. Loves wet gray forest soils. During growth and flowering, abundant watering is necessary, especially in hot dry summers. During the growing season, the burnet must be fed 2-3 times with complex mineral fertilizers. Tall bushes should be tied up so that thin stems do not fall or break.
Burnet application in medicine and cooking
On flooded meadows, where in summer there is a real riot of colors, only withered herbs are visible in autumn. Against this faded background, the cherry heads of the medicinal burnet seem especially elegant and cute. And the leaves of the burnet in the early autumn still look quite like the summer: dark green above, bluish-silvery below.
You can prepare the leaves of the medicinal burnet with flowering tops, or better - the roots with rhizomes. They are dug up, shaken off the ground, washed in running water, cut into small pieces and dried.
Everyone knows the hemostatic properties of the medicinal burnet, due to which it is used for hemoptysis, gastric and hemorrhoidal bleeding. But everyone knows that decoctions of its roots and rhizomes are used for dysentery, flatulence and diarrhea of various origins, ulcerative colitis, chronic enterocolitis. This decoction also works well for thrombophlebitis of the legs, arterial hypertension, the so-called "rush" of blood to the head. Also, a decoction of burnet is used externally for tonsillitis, stomatitis, colpitis, cervical erosion, acne, boils, inflammatory processes on the skin, phlebitis, for washing wounds and bedsores, for pain relief for bruises and dislocations.
A decoction of medicinal burnet is prepared from the calculation: one tablespoon of root and rhizomes in a glass of boiling water. Take a tablespoon of decoction 5-6 times a day.
You can prepare a cold infusion from the herb burnet medicinal: 2 tablespoons of raw materials are poured with 3 glasses of cold water, insisted for 6-8 hours. Filter the infusion, drink a quarter of a glass 3 times a day before meals.
Outwardly, a decoction of the roots and rhizomes of the medicinal burnet is used for compresses and rinses, as well as for sitz baths with shallow hemorrhoids. Dosage: 4 tablespoons for 2 cups of boiling water for sitz baths - 8 tablespoons for 0.5 liters of boiling water. Then add warm water to the bowl.
Contraindications for internal use of medicinal burnet: pregnancy, constipation.
Burnet is used not only for medicinal purposes, but also in cooking. Young burnet leaves are edible, with a pleasant smell reminiscent of cucumber. They are used for flavoring drinks, for adding to salads, for making soups and fish dishes.
Kapitolina Semyonovna Rodionova
Weekly Free Digest of Gardenia.ru Site
Every week, for 10 years, for our 100,000 subscribers, an excellent selection of relevant materials about flowers and garden, as well as other useful information.